Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies.
After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 28.7 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.
The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 years BCE. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BCE. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures such as Cupisnique, Chavin, Paracas, Mochica, Nazca, Wari, and Chimú. In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money." - 
"However, no where is the evidence so strong that Ancient Aliens have existed on Earth in deep antiquity marking extraterrestrial influences that have shaped human history. Peru has become legendary to both explorers and scientists alike as one of the most mysterious places on Earth.
This fascinating feature length program provides a fresh perspective on the many amazing wonders that can only be found in this remarkable part of the world. The ancient Nazca Lines, the Paracas Trident, the Megaliths of Marcahuasi, the summit of Machu Picchu, the hand carved Inca Stones, the strange Paracas Skulls, and a vast network of underground tunnel systems are explored and filmed here for the first time." - - 
1.^ Directly quoted from Wikipedia.org at URI: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peru on March 28th, 2013.
2.^ Partially quoted from Youtube.com at URI: http://youtu.be/tKOebS_oWn0 on March 28th, 2013.
3.^ Video located on Youtube.com at URI: http://youtu.be/tKOebS_oWn0 on March 28th, 2013.